It is essential for the operative to understand how criminal investigations are conducted and just what can and cannot be determined from crime scene evidence. This knowledge will allow the operative to reduce the risk that law enforcement will be able to identify, build a case against, and successfully prosecute him or her.
Fingerprints are possibly the most common type of physical evidence, and certainly one of the most valuable to investigators. Each person's fingerprints are unique to them and do not change significantly over time. Therefore, they offer the investigator the ability to identify the person who left them at the crime scene.
-Fingerprints deposited on hard, nonabsorbent, smooth surfaces, such as metal, glass, and finished wood, are the easiest investigators to find and record.
-Fingerprints deposited on porous, absorbent surfaces are the most difficult for investigators to find and process but the technology exists the obtain
-Fingerprints off of nearly any surface, provided they are processed soon after being deposited.
The only way to avoid this is to simply not leave any fingerprints behind. Wearing surgical gloves during every stage of a given mission is the simplest way to achieve this. Every item the operative brings along on a mission must have none of the operative's (or any Comrade's) fingerprints on it. Special care must be taken to be sure that items, such as weapons, tools, and explosives, which have been handled before a mission, are free of incriminating fingerprints.
Body fluids are of great importance to the investigator. Because of the unique character of each individual's DNA, the crime lab can rule a suspect out based on DNA samples or make statements such as " there is a 1 in 9,000,529,200 chance that someone other than the suspect deposited the sample found at the crime scene". This type of evidence is obviously very powerful.
DNA samples can be obtained from liquid or dried blood, saliva, urine and perspiration. Samples can also be obtained from human milk and semen but these are not the types of samples the operative is likely to leave behind.
How can the you avoid leaving this type of evidence for investigators to find?
- Never urinate, eat, drink or smoke at or near the mission target. Saliva samples can be obtained from unfinished portions of food, beverage containers and cigarette butts. The operative may be forced to violate this guideline when lying in ambush or in a sniper's nest for extended periods. In this case the operative must use care not to leave samples behind for investigators to obtain.
- Never lick stamps or envelopes to be use to threaten enemies, to claim responsibility for acts of war or when making letter or package bomb attacks.
- The operative should do everything possible to avoid cuts and abrasions during the course of a mission. Chose routes of ingress and egress which are free of obstructions. Wear tough clothes, footwear and, of course, gloves.
- Whenever the operative is forced to come into physical contact with the enemy there is potential for body fluid samples to be deposited. The best way to prevent this is to become proficient in armed and unarmed combat so that enemies can be dealt with quickly and the risk of injury to the operative reduced.
There is also potential for the body fluids of the target of an attack or some contaminants from the crime scene to be deposited on the operative during the course of a mission. This potential is particularly strong in missions of Selective Assassination. When using weapons such as knives and firearms fired at close range, the operative is sure to become contaminated with samples of the target's blood. There is also potential for gunshot residue, trace elements from explosives, hair + fiber, and soil evidence to be deposited upon the operative's person and clothing.
The operative must begin each mission with a set of sterile cloths and destroy them afterwards. The clothing and footwear worn by the operative during a mission should be obtained from second-hand clothing stores or from services which provide used clothing to the poor. The clothing should be kept sealed in the bag from the store and not washed or worn before the mission. This is a simple and cheap way for the operative to be supplied with sterile clothing, which will be free of hair, fiber and trace elements evidence from the operative's vehicle, residence or person. These clothes can be removed and destroyed after the completion of the mission.
This type of evidence is also frequently referred to as hair and fiber evidence. Trace evidence can be loosely defined as materials which are small enough to be overlooked upon initial inspection, and which, because of their size, are easily exchanged through contact. Examples of trace evidence include, hair, fiber, gunshot residue, threads, soil, debris, dust and chemicals, adhesives, polymers, paints, wood, insulation from safes and metals.
The detection of trace evidence linking a suspect to the crime scene, coupled with good evidence standards, makes for a powerful investigative tool. The White resistance fighter must be aware of the potential links which law enforcement can make from trace evidence deposited at the crime scene or transferred from the crime scene to the operative's body, clothes, footwear, vehicle, residence etc.
Comparison of Tool Marks
The operative should be well aware of the ability of investigators to identify just about anything you bring to the target location as having been there and this is especially true for tools. The operative may have to make forced entry into a residence or other buildings and vehicles in the course of planting explosives, selective assassination or for the purpose of acquiring funds or weapons needed. The tools used on such missions should be sterile, i.e. they should not have the operatives fingerprints on them or any residue evidence which link them back to the operative. Scrounge or liberate any tools needed and store them as described for sterile clothing, yard sale and flea markets are excellent sources for cheap tools. A sterile tool is best left at the crime scene, making it a dead end for investigation.
Any tool which must be kept due to its value should be altered by working its contact surfaces with a file or abrasive before and after any mission. Altering the tool before a mission is necessary because the tool may have been used or tested at the operative's residence, allowing an investigator to link the tool back to this earlier use.
There is a well known saying amongst prosecutors that "the only thing worse than no evidence at all is eyewitness evidence". This reflects the fact that the average person who witnesses a crime has no training in observation skills. Most people don't really take note of what the suspect looks like, what kind of clothes the suspect wore, or what type of weapons or vehicles, if any, were used. This fact is a double-edged sword to the operative; on one hand any eyewitnesses will generally be of only marginal help to investigators but on the other hand, when investigators have the operative targeted as a suspect it is very easy for them to influence the testimony of eyewitnesses.
The operative must do everything possible to avoid being noticed by witnesses while conducting missions. Here are some things to remember:
- It is important to avoid making eye-contact with passersby while travelling to and from the target area. Eye-contact is both a sexual signal and a threatening gesture and will be sure cause witnesses to take note.
- Dress to fit into the surroundings at the target area.
- Earth tones and a drab appearance will go a long way to reducing the number of witnesses who take note of the operative.
- Don't exhibit signs of strength or alertness, keep the muscles of the chest and shoulders relaxed and slightly slouched. This will make witnesses dismiss you as unthreatening without a second glance.
- Don't wear a disguise which will draw undue attention. A good example is a police uniform; this is possibly the worst imaginable disguise and should only be used when absolutely necessary. A police officer's appearance and activities are usually noticed by everyone and people are likely to approach a police officer with questions or comments. A construction worker, on the other hand, will often be given the same level of unchallenged access as a cop but, at the same time, will draw less attention.
- Don't speak or interact with anyone unless absolutely necessary
Surveillance cameras are a common resource for law enforcement. When investigating a crime, investigators will look at the tapes recorded by business security cameras in the area of the crime scene, near the suspect's residence and along any possible routes between the previous two locations. The sheer number of cameras in use today gives the investigator a good chance of obtaining damning evidence that a suspect was in the vicinity of the crime scene or traveled along a route to it before or away from it after the crime was committed. Many high-profile cases have included this element of evidence recently.
In order to avoid being caught with this type of evidence the operative should take a round-a-bout route to the target area, avoiding downtown storefronts, banks, jewelry or electronics shops or anywhere else that is likely to have security cameras. Vehicles owned by the operative, or which can be linked to the operative or any other comrade should not be used as transportation directly to and from the target area. If absolutely necessary drive to a spot which is several blocks from the target and walk from there. If a getaway car is required for the mission it must be a stolen vehicle, preferably one stolen very recently Use public transportation or walk to the target if possible, rush hour is the best time for this as anonymity can easily be maintained in a crowd. A disguise of some sort should be worn but don't get too fancy with this, a ball-cap, dark sunglasses and some uncharacteristic clothing will make a more convincing cover than a fake wig, beard or anything else which is too extravagant.
Forensic Firearm Evidence
In the event of most shootings and nearly all firearm homicides an investigation involving Forensic Firearm Identification is conducted. A racially motivated attack or the assassination of one of the System's elite will almost certainly result in all the available resources of law enforcement being brought to bear including a meticulous investigation of forensic firearms evidence. It is important for the operative to understand the nature of this type of investigation and just what can and cannot be determined through forensic investigations. A good understanding of the investigative process will help the resistance fighter to reduce the chances of leaving useful evidence at a crime scene or of being caught in possession of such evidence later.
Firearms identification involves the identification of fired bullets, cartridge cases or other ammunition components as having been fired from a specific firearm (ballistics). Firearms identification is actually a form of Tool Mark Identification where the firearm, because it is made of a material harder than the ammunition components, acts as a tool to leave impressions and striated markings on the various ammunition components that come into contact with the firearm.
Firearms evidence found at a crime scene or seized elsewhere will be submitted to a police lab's Firearms Section for investigation. This evidence will typically include a firearm, fired bullets, spent cartridge cases, spent shot shells, shot, shot shell wadding, live ammunition, clothing, or a number of other types of miscellaneous evidence.
Studies have shown that no two firearms, even those of the same make and model, will produce the same unique marks on fired bullets and cartridge cases. Manufacturing processes, use, and abuse leave surface characteristics within the firearm that cannot be exactly reproduced in other firearms.
Firearms do not normally change much over time. This allows for firearms recovered months or even years after a shooting to be identified as having fired a specific bullet or cartridge case. Tests have been conducted proving that even after firing several hundred rounds through a firearm the last bullet fired could still be identified to the first.
It should be noted that not all firearms leave consistent reproducible marks but around eighty percent of the firearms examined produce what is sometimes called a "mechanical fingerprint" on the bullets and cartridge cases that pass through them.
Bullets collected for comparison to a specific firearm are examined first to see if they are of a caliber that could have been fired from the submitted firearm. They are then examined to determine if the pattern of rifling impressions on the bullet match the pattern of rifle contained in the barrel of the questioned firearm. If these class characteristics agree the next step is to try to make a positive match between the individual characteristics that may have transferred to the bullet from the barrel.
- With shotguns the real concern is not the projectile (most shotguns do not have rifling and therefore impart no impressions on the shot or slug projectiles) but the spent shells. The firing pin impressions and other cartridge case marks can be used to match a shotgun to a crime if spent shells are left behind. The spent shells must be retrieved in order to prevent evidence from being obtained to link the weapon to the crime. This is usually not possible.
- Wear gloves in order to prevent fingerprints on the weapon if it must be discarded hastily and to prevent gunshot residue from being present on your hands if you are apprehended.
- Ammo to be used in an attack can be chambered in and then manually ejected from a firearm other than the one to be used. This will leave marks on the cartridge case which will confuse the examination and make positive matching of weapon to the ammunition components more difficult.
- A good trick is to use a weapon which does not eject spent shells (revolver or break-open type shotgun or rifle) and then intentionally leave spent shells of a similar type but fired from a different weapon behind. Spent shells used for this should be obtained wherever people go to shoot such as shooting ranges and garbage dumps. A .38 special or .357 magnum revolver can cause a great deal of confusion when employed this way because they can fire projectiles which are identical to those fired by a. 38 super, 9mm, .380 and a number of others. This means that with a .38 or .357 magnum if no shell casings are left behind the investigator can't be sure which type of weapon was used. If shell casings from a .38 super, for instance, are left at the scene of an attack where a .38 special was actually used the firearms investigator will have to conclude that a .38 super was used.
- After a firearm is used in an attack it will have to be destroyed, altered to remove identifiable characteristics or cached. If a weapon is to be destroyed, every part must be damaged enough to make examination impossible.
Police investigators are able to gain quite a bit of information from even an exploded bomb. Instrumental analyses of explosives and residues can determine whether substances are high explosive, low explosive, or explosive or incendiary mixtures; whether the composition of the substances is consistent with known explosive products; and the type of explosives. Explosive residue can be deposited on metal, plastic, wood, paper, or glass. Residue may be deposited after handling, storing, or initiating an explosive.
The operative must make every effort to minimize the amount and value of evidence which an investigator can obtain. Here are some guidelines for minimizing evidence in bombings:
- An exploded bomb will yield less evidence and will take much more time and effort to investigate than an unexploded one. Also, a bomb which fizzles makes you look unprofessional and less than committed, which reflects a similar appearance upon our whole movement. Make sure your bomb will function.
- Use the most commonly available components you can obtain.
- Don't purchase any parts which could be scrounged at junkyards or garbage dumps.
- Use homemade propellant unless you are sure that the commercial propellant you use can not be traced. Remember the police "Ident" lab will be able to identify almost any commercial explosive from just one grain of it, it is even possible to identify an explosive from its residue.
- Remove any labels, logos, serial numbers or distinguishing marks from bomb components such as batteries, clockworks, circuit boards or electronic delays as the investigator may be able to get batch or lot numbers from your components allowing them to discover when and where they were purchased.
- Be sure to wear gloves during the entire process of constructing and delivering the bomb to eliminate the possibility of leaving fingerprints behind.
- Don't leave any hair, saliva, blood, clothing, vehicle or furniture fibers upon or within the bomb. The bomb investigator knows that this type of evidence often gets caught within the threads of a pipe-bomb and can often survive the explosion. This is another good reason to be sure that these parts are well cleaned and lubed. Saliva can be used to obtain a DNA sample, which is better than a signed confession to prosecutors. Don't lick the envelope or postage (or anything else for that matter) on a package or mail bomb.
- Never purchase any bomb components with a credit card or check as this leaves a paper trail back to you. When buying parts be sure not to draw attention to yourself, a purchase of 24, 1' threaded pipe sections and 48 end caps will definitely raise suspicions and ensure that store employees and other customers will take a good look at you. Remember never buy any parts which could be scrounged or made.
Forensic Computer Examinations
Forensic computer examinations can:
- Determine what type of data files are in a computer
- Compare data files to known documents and data files
- Determine the time and sequence that data files were created
- Extract data files from the computer
- Recover deleted files from the computer
- Search data files for keywords or phrases (Such as explosive, ******, Hitler etc.)
- Recover and decrypt passwords
- Analyze and compare source code
The amount of forensic computer evidence obtained by investigators can be greatly reduced by using the best possible encryption programs with unique and complex passwords. Don't write your passwords down and don't include any obvious phrases or numbers.
Ink and Handwriting Evidence
Examinations can compare the formulation of known and questioned ink including pen, typewriter ribbon and stamp pad ink. When ink formulations are the same, it is not possible to determine whether the ink originated from the same source to the exclusion of others. Writing instruments should be "sterile", in that they should not be used by the operative before or after use in an action.
Handwriting evidence allows the examiner to determine, with reasonable accuracy, if an evidence sample of handwriting was produced by a given suspect.
This type of evidence is of concern to the operative in cases of Fraud, Death Threats, Mail Bombs and when signed receipts and other documents are part of a mission. Writing with the opposite hand, purposely distorting the natural writing method, and using block letters are all tricks which the operative can use to reduce this type of evidence.
Toxicology examinations can disclose the presence of drugs or poisons in biological specimens (i.e. deceased targets). The examinations can determine the circumstances surrounding drug- or poison-related homicides, suicides, or accidents.
The most readily identified toxins include:
- Volatile compounds (ethanol, methanol, isopropanol)
- Heavy metals (arsenic)
- Nonvolatile organic compounds (drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals)
- Miscellaneous (strychnine, cyanide)
The operative should not store any poisons where investigators can find them. Make up poisons only as the are needed. Toxins such as Ethylene Glycol or Methanol are commonly used chemicals and do not have significant potential as evidence against the operative.
Investigators will use a technique called profiling whenever there is a particularly difficult case or series of cases to solve. This process attempts to make an educated guess at the suspect's identity by analyzing crime scene evidence. Factors such as the suspect's age, race, level of education, employment, social status, and even where he or she lives can be deduced with reasonable accuracy.
In order to thwart the efforts of criminal profilers the operative must:
- Leave as little evidence as possible behind at crime scenes.
- Use simple language when making threats or claiming responsibility for actions.
- Never attack any target near your residence or any former residence, near your place of work, or along any routes which you travel often. Law enforcement profilers know that these types of attacks are often made upon targets which are in areas familiar to the perpetrator. The first attack an operative makes is particularly important because profilers know that a perpetrator almost always makes his first attack against a familiar target.
- Don't develop a pattern in your attacks which will allow law enforcement to predict when and where you will next strike. Vary the types of attacks, the time of day, day of the week and attack targets in as wide a geographical area as possible.
Source- The White Resistance Group
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Re: Police Investigations
...I'll go with you, then,
Since you must play this game of ghosts...
Re: Police Investigations
I'm worried now...... what are missions?
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